Chongqing is a famous cultural city with a history of 3000 years
and a glorious revolutionary tradition. It is the birthplace of
Bayu culture. Towards the end of the Old Stone Age approximately
20000-30000 years ago, mankind began to live in Chongqing. In
Shang and Zhou Dynasties (C.11th century BC) Ba people founded
Kingdom Ba and made Chongqing their capital.
Ba in its most flourishing period was " to Yufu (present
Fengjie) in the east, to Dao in the west, to Hanzhong in the
north and to Qianfu in the south " . Original Chongqing was
the centre to jurisdiction East Sichuan, South Shanxi, West
Hubei, Northwest of Hunan and North Guizhou. In all dynasties
since Qing and Han this region was for most of the time a unified
administrative region with Chongqing as the centre. In the old
times Chongqing was called Jiangzhou. Then it was called Bajun,
Chuzhou, Yuzhou and Gongzhou. In A.D. 581 Long Sky Wendi of Sui
Dynasty changed Chuzhou to Yuzhou, thus coming the short form
Yu for Chongqing. In 1189 Long Sky Guang Zhong of Song Dynasty
was first conferred on prince and then ascended the throne.
He called it double happiness and Chongqing (double happiness)
gained its name. It is almost 800 years now. In 1891, Chongqing
became an open port. In 1929 Chongqing was formally made a city.
is one of special ethnic cultures along upstream of Yangtze
river. The origin of Bayu culture came from Ba culture. It referred
the area culture which created during the development of Ba
Ethnic and Ba Country. Ba people lived in mountain and river.
They came into brawiness, tenacity characters because the edification
of nature and anneal by bad environment. So they were famous
for their brave and fighting.
Ba ethnic was good at singing and dancing. The Bayu dance mainly
came from war. Gradually, this kind of dance became the court
dance. It was a group dance. It was rough and vigor. Until Han
dynasty, Bayu dance was listed court dance at banquet. The dance
River from Chongqing to Wushan, the river routes were crook
and narrow with reef and stone. There were a lot of riffle and
dangerous shoal. At that time, only labors pushed or pulled
the boats, without any mechanic equipment. So there were over
10 or more than 100 labors sailed the boat on river. This was
a very hard work. So they created " Haozi " . It was the work song
sung to synchronize movement, with one person leading. Their
life was very miserable. So the Haozi was also their heart words.
some folk arts which are famous in all over the world in Chongqing.
Top 10 folk arts are Long Peace dance of Tongliang, Dazu's carved
stone, Qijiang's hands winding dance, boatman's song, Xiushan's
festive lantern, Chongqing's beating(Jielong. Gold Bridge),
Jiulong two pairs, Xiaohe gong and drum, Liangping three arts(Liangshan
light,bamboo curtain picture, New Year¡¡pictures), Square story(Shapingba)