you have time, the Residence of General Joseph W. Stilwell, 4.5 about kilometres
southeast of the downtown is worthwhile a visit.
Joseph Warren Stilwell (1883-1946)
Joseph Warren Stilwell was chief commander of US forces in the China-Burma-India
Theatre during World War II. In 1942, ranked as a major general, he was dispatched
to CBI and was regarded as the best field commander in the entire United States
Army. General Stilwell was a true friend of the Chinese people as well as a Chinese
came to China on Nov. 23, 1911, not long after the Qing Dynasty was overthrown,
and paid a visit to Shanghai, Guangzhou, Xiamen and Wuzhou for seventeen days.
He came back for a second time in Aug 1920 as the first language instructor of
the US Army in China. Between 1921 and 1922, he worked as Chief Engineer of road
construction in Shanxi and Shaanxi province. On one of his journeys to the north-eastern
part of the country, General Stilwell witnessed the civil war between warlords
over the land. He also sensed out the superiority of the Japanese over other races
in that area. One year later, his four-year term of office in China expired.
Aug 1926, he visited China for a third time and served first as Battalion Commander,
then Acting Chief of Staff of the 15th Infantry of the US Army in Tianjin. Just
one month before the inauguration of the general in Tianjin, Northern Expedition
was launched under the joint action of the Nationalist and Communist Parties.
Stilwell was sent to the battlefield in Nanjing and Shanghai. This time, he got
a further understanding of the turbulent China. In 1928, at the age of forty-five,
Stilwell was raised to lieutenant and, in August of the next year, he left his
post in China and returned to the States.
fourth visit to China was in Jan 1935. This time, he was named Military Attache
to the US Legation in China and had interviews with Zhou Enlai, the representative
of the CPC and Mrs. Chiang Kai-shek. From 1935, the Japanese precipitated its
invasion into China and in 1937, Japan officially declared war on China and the
nationwide Anti-Japanese War started. General Stilwell managed a loan of twenty-five
million dollars for China granted by the American government. However, in the
middle of 1939, he had to go back home after the expiry of his service.
5 May 1942, the general came to China for fifth time. He stayed in Chongqing and
served as the US Army Commander of the CBI Theatre while supervising the implementation
of Lend-Lease in CBI. Mr. Chiang-Kai-shek appointed him as Chief of Staff of the
China Theatre under the Allied Army. In early 1942, he led the Chinese troops
fighting strenuously against the Japanese invaders in Burma. After the Allies'
defeat, the general organized the retreat of the Chinese, American and British
forces to India. There he helped training the Chinese troops. Between March and
June of 1944, the general commanded the Sino-US Army to fight against the Japanese
in the north of Burma and they won the battle. Afterwards, Stilwell was promoted
to a four-star general. While preparing the counteroffensive into Burma, he directed
the project of road construction via Ledo, India, Burma to Yunnan. The road was
open to traffic in 1945 and it was named after Stilwell.
staying in China, Stilwell kept in contact with Zhou Enlai through the political
advisor Davis. He detested the corrupt government of the Nationalist Party led
by Chiang-Kai-shek, for whose passive resistance against the Japanese and active
fighting with the communists. All this resulted in a serious disagreement between
Mr. Chiang and the general. US President Roosevelt recalled him in 1944.
refusal of the award conferred by Chiang-Kai-shek on Oct. 20, General Stilwell
decided to leave Chongqing. Before his leave, he paid a farewell call to Mrs.
Song Qingling, the wife of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and sent a farewell telegram to Zhou